22
Jan

At International Holocaust Remembrance Day, Roma remain ‘underreported’ victims

Misunderstood and still persecuted, the Roma people (also known as Romani or Gypsies) remain what some experts consider a relatively underreported ethnicity ahead of this year’s International Holocaust Remembrance Day on Jan. 27, which will mark the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz death camp.

Asperg, Deportation von Sinti und Roma

Rom deportation Asperg, Germany May 1940

Drawing support from many non-Nazi Germans who harbored social prejudice towards Roma, the Nazis judged Roma to be “racially inferior.” The fate of Roma in some ways paralleled that of the Jews. Under the Nazi regime, German authorities subjected Roma to arbitrary internment, forced labor, and mass murder. German authorities murdered tens of thousands of Roma in the German-occupied territories of the Soviet Union and Serbia, and killed thousands more in the concentration camps at Aushwitz-Birkenau, Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.

“The Roma are a small minority, and due to long-term persecution in the various societies Roma have lived, they have, as a group, tended to be reluctant to advertise their ethnic background,” Peter Black, a senior historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), told JNS.org. “The Roma have, for the past two or three centuries, been the victims of negative and violence-inciting stereotypes about them and their behavior.”

Black explained that the Roma “were reputed as travelers to be indifferent to indigenous social mores and legal structures, and to be inclined to engage in small-scale criminal behavior.” Those tendencies, Black said, are what Americans will typically bring up today when asked about what negative stereotype they have heard about Roma or Gypsies.

The Roma were thought to have come from Egypt—hence the name Gypsies—but in fact, they trace their roots back to northwestern India, Pakistan, and Iran.

“They migrated via the Middle East into southern Europe or via Russia into Eastern Europe,” Black said. “They came primarily as skilled craftsmen and musicians. Initially, Europeans welcomed them, but eventually they tended to be suspicious of Roma mores and also envious in terms of competition of the skilled crafts. By the late 16th and 17th centuries, Roma were already being excluded from the guilds which determined who could produce and sell hand-made goods.”

Black estimates that between 196,000 and 220,000 Roma were killed by the Nazis—about 20 percent of the entire European Roma population at the time.

Asperg, Deportation von Sinti und Roma

Nazi deportation of the Roma Asperg, Germany in May 1940

“[The Nazi persecution of Roma has been] relatively underreported and there has not been the same level of study, country by country, that there has been about the destruction of the Jews in Europe,” Black said. “Part of this is due to widely differing policies toward Roma. There were vast differences between the treatment of Roma in German-occupied and German-controlled Europe than the Jews. The Jews [in those areas of Europe] were killed at levels of between 75-80 percent [compared to 20 percent for the European Roma].”

Born in Czechoslovakia, Petra Gelbart is a granddaughter of Roma Holocaust survivors. An ethnomusicologist, musician, and singer, she uses both her research and her voice to educate and advocate for Holocaust remembrance of Roma victims.

“I try to take what people think they know about so-called ‘gypsies,’ and replace it with something that’s much more based in reality,” Gelbart said on a USHMM podcast called “Voices on Anti-Semitism.”

Gelbart said the main stereotype about Roma is that “we are nomadic, even though for most of history, for most of the past several hundred years, the majority of Roma have been settled.” There are also “stereotypes about us not wanting to work, and being criminals,” she said.

“When you have a group, the majority of which lives in poverty, you’re going to have issues with unemployment, low education, and you’re going to have issues with petty crime,” said Gelbart. “But in Europe it’s very hard for [Roma] to get a regular job because the employment discrimination is just massive. The thing that people should really be worried about is not are we a criminal or ‘work-shy’ people, but rather what is the access to jobs that we have or don’t have.”

Are Roma still persecuted today? In 2011, the USHMM released a statement calling attention to the issue, saying it was “alarmed by the precarious situation of the Roma in today’s Europe” and urging European governments “to uphold the rights and freedoms of Roma in accordance with international and regional obligations.”

“Recent anti-Roma acts and sentiment span [across Europe],” USHMM said. “Violent attacks against Roma have occurred in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Russian Federation and government authorities have organized deportations in France and Italy. In many places, Roma are singled out for isolation and denied their civil rights, and a number of national and local government officials have recently made anti-Roma statements.”

Andy Hollinger, USHMM’s director of communications, told JNS.org that “Roma certainly continue to face threats in Europe, so yes, we stand by the general principle” of the 2011 statement.

“That said, if you are looking at a specific circumstance or statistic [on the persecution of Roma], that may have changed [since 2011],” he said.

In his 2001 book “The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies,” Guenter Lewy draws upon thousands of documents from German and Austrian archives to trace the escalating vilification of Roma during the Nazis’ widespread crackdown on the “work-shy” and “itinerants.”

Lewy shows that Nazi policy towards Roma was inconsistent. At first, local officials persecuted gypsies, and those who behaved in gypsy-like fashion, for allegedly anti-social tendencies. Later, with the rise of race obsession, the Roma were seen as a threat to German racial purity—though Nazi military commander Heinrich Himmler himself wavered, trying to save those he considered “pure Gypsies” descended from Aryan roots in India. Indeed, Lewy contradicts much existing scholarship in showing that, however much the Roma were persecuted, there was no general program of extermination analogous to the “final solution” for the Jews.

USHMM’s Black believes that while Lewy’s book contains valuable factual information, it might focus too much on how the persecution of the Roma differs from the persecution of the Jews.

“I thought that was a distraction,” Black said. “The persecution was somewhat different between the two groups. But both Jews and Roma in Nazi ideology were a people who were not going to be permitted to live with Germans. The Nazis went back and forth and had trouble deciding how extreme a policy they wanted to carry out against the Roma. This permitted a relatively small minority of Roma to survive in Germany, which was somewhat different than the Jews.”

According to Black, while the Jews were perceived in Nazi ideology as being a priority enemy, the Roma were seen as tools of the Jews.

“In the occupied Soviet Union and occupied Serbia, Roma and Jews were shot side by side,” he said. “The policy against them was more or less absolutely the same in terms of practical day-to-day actions. The Jews were a more important priority enemy, although the fact remains that nearly 80 percent of Roma who lived in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic prior to 1939 were dead in 1945.”

Black said it is important to “place the treatment of the Roma into a broader context,” but perhaps more important to remember the “individual stories” of the Roma who survived the Holocaust, which have not been as widely reported as Jewish Holocaust stories.

“Unlike Jewish survivors of the Holocaust who were writing about their experiences almost as soon as World War II was over, Roma have been reluctant because of ongoing discrimination and persecution up until the present day,” he said.

3
Dec

Flyers With Hate Speech against the Roma

BELGRADE – The police are working to find out who was responsible for creating flyers with hate speech against the Roma in Serbia, and the Republic of Serbia will not tolerate any form of discrimination, the Serbian Ministry of Interior (MUP) said in a statement on Monday. MUP made the statement after the organization ‘Srbska akcija’ (Serbian Action) placed leaflets in the mailboxes across Belgrade over the weekend that contained hate speech against the Roma national minority, and these leaflets were distributed in other cities as well. “The police are making their best efforts in cooperation with the competent public prosecutor’s office to find and identify the persons responsible for creating and distributing the flyers of the organization ‘Srbska akcija’, which openly call for violence, lynching and hate speech against members of the Roma nationality,” the Ministry of Interior said. The ministry also said that the police would protect the freedom and security of all citizens regardless of their ethnic, political, religious or any other orientation. The flyers, signed by the organization ‘Srbska akcija’ (Serbian Action), fed into Serbian citizens’ mailboxes, contain hate speech against the Roma minority and open calls for violence and lynching. The views expressed in the leaflets, stating that “spreading of wild Gypsy settlements,” which constitute “inhuman neighborhoods” and which, by their moving to clean neighborhoods, can only bring “unbearable stench, quarrels, fights, and rising crime rates,” represent not only an affront to human dignity, but also a serious form of racial discrimination, which is prohibited by law, said Serbia’s Commissioner for Protection of Equality Nevena Petrusic on Monday. 

 

9
Nov

If you love Venice Beach, these free spirited characters…

final-cover-web “If you love Venice Beach, these free spirited characters will warm your heart and enrich your consciousness.

This wonderfully written novel combines two topics which fascinate me—-bohemians and Venice Beach. As the first book in the “Destiny’s Consent” trilogy, it’s an entertaining and enjoyable read. I was immediately transported to the magical world of Los Angeles at the early part of the 20th century. The women in this novel are strong and empowered, and their gypsy culture is colorfully described, making you feel like a participant in every vivid scene.

 Patricia Nolan Stein

13
Oct

The Roma or Gypsies: The Most Unwanted People

(MENAFN – AFP) With bulldozers at their doorstep, beginning to tear down their homes,
it is hard to imagine life could get worse for the Roma of Miskolc, Hungary’s
impoverished third-largest city. But for Gypsies, it can seemingly always get worse.
 eviction notice
 But with the far-right Jobbik party possibly about to win the Miskolc mayorship in local elections on Sunday, it could.

In May, the city council -“ which, like Hungary’s parliament, is run by Prime Minister
Viktor Orban’s right-wing Fidesz “- voted to demolish 13 areas inhabited
predominantly by Miskolc’s 20,000-strong Roma, or Gypsy, community. 
The wrecking
machinery arrived in August. So far only around a dozen homes have been razed —
but this is just the start. 
“We have nowhere to go, we will be left homeless,” Eva
Molnar, a 50-year-old Roma whose respiratory problems mean she can’t work, told
AFP as she clutched an eviction letter giving her until October 20 to vacate her home.

The area where she lives, squeezed between a derelict communist-era metalworks and a
football stadium slated for an upgrade, is quiet, since many of her neighbours have
already left. 
“They’ll not be happy until we’re all gone,” Molnar said.

The municipality says Miskolc, home to 168,000 people, should be made more “liveable”
and rid itself of slums that are “unsuitable for normal life”. One Fidesz officialcalled the
Roma areas “hotbeds of crime”.  
Many local residents support the move. “About time,”
one shopper at a bus stop told AFP. “Slums have no place in Miskolc.” The mayor
claims that 35,000 signatures have been collected in support of the demolitions.

“The Roma have to leave Miskolc as around 70-80 percent of Hungarian society simply
doesn’t not want to see them or have anything to do with them,” Mihaly Simon of the
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union rights group told AFP.

         Nowhere to go 

Four years after Orban was elected, and despite his promises to improve their misery,
the European Union member state’s Roma trail in practically every indicator from living
standards to health, as they do throughout eastern and central Europe. 
Under Orban,
51, who has been accused at home and abroad of eroding democracy, many Roma —
who comprise eight to nine percent of Hungary’s 10 million population — have been
forced into “workfare” schemes, doing menial work in order to continue receiving
welfare payments.

But not all of the properties in Miskolc are tumbledown shacks or Hungarian versions
of the favelas of Brazil. Many are one-storey houses — lots of them crumbling, but
some of them well-maintained. 
And where Miskolc’s Roma are supposed to go is unclear.
Several nearby villages have warned they have no money to provide work or benefits
to any newcomers, and are collecting petitions opposing the “export” of the poor.

“It’s barbaric, there were no impact studies for this, nobody spoke to the Gypsies,”
Gabor Varadi, head of a local Roma political grouping, told AFP. 
“The council is spending
billions of forints [millions of euros (dollars)]… on the new football stadium instead of
social housing for poor people,” he said.

    ‘Deviants’ 

A few of those being evicted in Miskolc — those with indefinite-term leases — are being
offered money or flats elsewhere, but Jobbik’s candidate in Sunday’s election, Peter
Jakab, says he will scrap even this if elected. 
Jobbik, which won 21 percent of the vote
in general elections in April, sparking alarm throughout Europe, says it will flatten the
houses immediately and force the Roma to cover the demolition costs.

“They knew when they signed the lease that it would expire one day, that the owner
might kick them out,” Jakab told AFP. 
Jobbik, which has sought to soften its image in
recent years, still says it wants to stop “Gypsy crime”, create ghettos for Roma
“deviants” and create a rural “gendarmerie” of the sort last seen in Hungary before
World War II. 
The local elections are expected to see Orban’s party remain firmly in
control. 
But nationwide, Jobbik is forecast to more than double its control of
municipalities, from 12 currently to around 30.

13
Oct

A Film: The Rom ‘Gypsies’ in the WWII Holocaust

Film A-People-Uncounted_500

The Holocaust that resulted in the deaths of millions of European Jews during World War II is well known. However, fewer people are aware that several other groups of people were targeted for elimination by the Nazis, including the Roma, often referred to in the English-speaking world by the misnomer of “gypsies.”

A People Uncounted: The Untold Story of the Roma aims to make up that deficiency in public knowledge. Director Aaron Yeger draws on a variety of interview subjects, including Holocaust survivors, historians, activists, musicians, artists, and average citizens, each of whom has a story to tell about how their Roma ethnicity has shaped their lives. Sadly, prejudice against the Roma lives on—one woman insists on being seen in shadow because she doesn’t want to harm the career of her son, a successful professional, and Roma today are the ethnicity most often singled out for discrimination in the European Union.

Yeger also covers, briefly, a history of the Roma, with an emphasis on the ill treatment they have suffered over the years in Europe. It didn’t start with the Holocaust, but reaches back at least to the 1400s, when several countries expelled Roma from their borders. They received this treatment periodically, by (among others) the Hapsburg dynasty and England’s Henry VIII.

Independent of these threats to life and limb, Roma culture is seldom understood by those outside their society. Instead, stereotypes of dancing peasants and fiddlers or of thieves and scoundrels have been perpetuated in popular culture, and for many people, that’s all they know. One of the greatest services of A People Uncounted is to provide some images that contradict these stereotypes, and Yeger does this with his many interview subjects, who are forthcoming about their lives and goals. The filmmakers traveled to 11 countries to shoot A People Uncounted, which in itself is a tribute to the international nature of the Roma.

For a subject so potentially fraught with emotion, A People Uncounted is a surprisingly calm film, which is a good thing: Yeger’s case is so strong that it has no need to gin up the audience’s feelings. Stephen C. Whitehead’s cinematography plays a key role in conveying mood as well as fact, and he won the Robert Brooks award for best documentary from the Canadian Society of Cinematographers for his work on this film.

Extras on the disc include extended interviews with seven participants. | Sarah Boslaugh

 

7
Sep

Forgotten victims of Hungary’s Roma murders

Five years ago, six Roma Gypsies were murdered by far-right extremists. Half a decade on, authorities seem to have little interest in the surviving victims of the Roma Community.

 

Never could I have imagined that, says said Tibor Nagy. People attacking others and murdering at random. “That was a man hunt,” he says. Years later, horror and disbelief are still clear to hear in the 47-year-old’s voice.

On the evening of November 3, 2008, in the north-eastern village of Nagycsecs, far-right extremists set Tibor Nagy’s house on fire and shot at his family as they tried to flee. They murdered his wife Éva and his brother Jozsef. Although he, too, was injured, Tibor Nagy survived.

The murders of the Nagycsecs were the first in a series of attacks throughout 2008 and 2009, in which six Romanies were killed. Among the victims was a five-year-old boy. Another 55 Romanies were also injured. The last of the murders was committed five years ago on August 3, 2009. Three weeks later, four suspected right-wing extremists, who were known to the authorities, were arrested in the eastern Hungarian city of Debrecen.

Failure of the authorities

On the 5th anniversary of the last murders, the Hungarian public and above all the political elite have lost interest in the subject. The media rarely reports about the Roma killings. And as of yet, there has been no public commemoration to honor the victims, or any visit by state leaders.

After the murders, most of the affected families fell into a state of misery. Many of the victims were left disabled for life and with psychological illnesses.

Similar to the NSU murders in Germany, investigators were left in the dark for a long time. Initially they handled the murders as a simple crime, but later began to pursue the case as a crime of right-wing extremism. For a long time investigators were uncoordinated and Hungarian intelligence agencies withheld information about the perpetrators.

Burial of one of the Roma murder victims in Tatarszentgyoergy in March 2009

 The social-liberal coalition, which was in office at the time of the killings, is responsible for the failure of the authorities in the murder investigation. No one from the coalition has apologized to the victims. Even the national-conservative Orban government don’t seem to be interested in a resolution. Secret investigations into further accomplices and sloppiness in the intelligence agencies during the Roma murders have been delayed.

Second Class Roma citizens

“In Hungary, Romany affairs and Romany victims are second-class-citizen matters,” says Jozsef Gulyas, a former liberal member of parliament, who led an inquiry into the murders in 2009. “The state doesn’t address racist crimes enough and there are no harsh statements from political leaders against these crimes.”

Among Hungarian politicians, there’s only a little opposition to such statements; for example, against public anti-Romany outbursts. Calvinis pastor, Zoltan Balog, who is also the current Minister for Human Resources in the Orban government, is one of the few Hungarian politicians who has made a gesture to the victims of the Roma murders. Every year he holds a memorial service and invites survivors and family of the victims.      

Photo of Roma murder trial in August 2013

 “Symbolism is important,” says Balog, emphasizing that as a consequence of racist crimes, the education curriculum needs to be changed. “We must awaken more understanding in the next generations than there is at the moment. We have a lot of work to do.”       

 Zoltan Balog also established financial support for the survivors and relatives of the murder victims. The fund recently received a pay-out of between four and seven thousand euros from the government. Some families were therefore able to modernize their humble dwellings by having gas or running water installed. Others wanted to move into better housing. Many of the survivors and their families need regular support to cover the costs of medication and treatment.

 Many ruined lives

That’s also the case for Tibor Nagy. After the death of his wife and brother he was diagnosed with diabetes, and as a result has become blind in one eye. He doesn’t have money for diabetic food and medication. In winter, Nagy and his daughter are often left without firewood and have only the bare necessities of food.

Photo of the Nagy family in their current home

 Like the other surviving victims of the Roma murders, Nagy could have regularly applied for compensation from the state – if not a final judgment against the perpetrators. Last August three of the Roma murderers were sentenced to life imprisonment and an accomplice to 13 years. All four have since appealed. When the second trial will begin remains unclear.

Tibor Nagy wishes that the perpetrators could be imprisoned to the end of their days. In a resigned voice, he says he can’t expect much more from life. “The murderers killed my wife and brother and they destroyed my life. I won’t have much happiness in this life anymore.”

 

29
Jan

My Father: A Man of Rom and his Horses (excerpt from “The Gypsy’s Song”)

“But Father was  quite known, among all of the Rom, for his ability
to train any horse, even the most difficult. This was tribute indeed, for
the Rom as a people love their grastende, their horses, and are incredible
horsemen.

Our horses, Sun and Moon, were the two prettiest in our caravan
and Father’s greatest pride. “After Angelica,” Father would add, rumpling
my hair, which never failed to gladden my heart. But undeniably, Father did
possess a gift with horses to which the Rom paid tribute, by bringing him
their animals to train with his touch.

I remember the day he bought Sun and Moon from a gadjo for a few
small coins of copper. Because of their deplorable condition, Father did not
even dare to hitch them to the back of a wagon that might go too fast.
Instead, he walked with them himself, on foot, all of the three miles from
town. This was a good opportunity for me to walk with my father, and I, of
course, accompanied him proudly.

Father of Angelica

The whole journey, my heart filled with gladness as I listened to him
talk to his new horses about the new life they would be living under
his care. He described the meadows of clover they would graze in,
and the warmth of sun on their backs and the clean water they would
drink. He told them that all they needed was good oats and rest
and he promised to begin work immediately on special horse brasses he
would attach to their harnesses to protect them from any evil the world
presented.

When Father and I arrived back at camp with his new horses, everyone,
including those used to restoring horses the gadje considered to be defective,
didn’t believe even Father’s expertise could bring these horses back to heart
and wholeness. They clicked their tongues at the waste of money Father had
spent upon such bad merchandise. Certainly, the horses would never be
ready to be sold at the annual Rom horse fair scheduled in two months. In
loyalty, I sided with my father, but silently had to agree with the others.
Both horses looked to be almost dead.

Sun was a skeleton of baggy skin, and most of his hair had fallen out in
tufts. Flies plagued a festering sore of yellow and gray pus that covered
almost his entire back. He limped in a stagger as if his back leg was broken.
The other horse, Moon, was in no better condition. He had been abused so
badly, he showed the white of his eyes to anything and everything. If the
wind scattered a few leaves under him, he would nervously rear and scream
as if Ben, the devil himself, were after him. Both horses had a shortness of
breath, and running eyes.

Very early the next morning, so the horses would know their new owner
to be a man true to his word, Father began shaping horse brasses for their
harnesses, right beside them. As he worked, he told each horse, privately
into their ears, the goodness he was forging into the brass so that they would
know the luck the brasses carried. He stood beside them in the hot sun to
shoo away any stinging flies from their eyes and backs. He also removed
their broken horseshoes, assuring them they would never wear such bad iron
ever again, and fussed over the shape of their new shoes.

Sun’s bad limp improved immediately. Father bound up both horses’
poor knees with healing herbs of sweet chamomile and rosemary. He
soothed their eyes with a wash steeped with fennel seed and eyebright. Both
horses were also promptly wormed with purgatives, made from a formula
known only to my father, and forced down their throats. All the while, Sun
and Moon feasted on the heavy grass in the fields, but that wasn’t good
enough for my father. He had promised them clover, and clover they would
have, although our other horses had already eaten all of the clover out of the
near-by fields and meadows. Undaunted, Father converted an open cart
with a tarp to disguise his purpose from the gadje, and went out and
gathered a bountiful load of clover for Sun and Moon. He knew the clover
was sweet, because he told me he had sampled it himself. And most nights,
Father slept beside his horses after he had finished telling them stories of all
the heroic horses he had ever known or heard mentioned.

 

And never did Father’s efforts slacken as Sun and Moon’s health began
to improve. He fed them salt to augment their hunger and thirst. He bled
Moon to help take away his nervous blood, but it was a long time before
Moon could be harnessed to a wagon without destroying it in a kicking
tantrum. But because Father remained patient and calm in his direction, the
day finally arrived when Moon joined Sun in a team to pull our wagon.
Everyday, rain and shine, Father rubbed Sun and Moon’s hooves with
peppermint oil to make their hooves glisten, and then polished them with a
rag so the hooves reflected like mirrors. Not only did he brush them each
for an hour every day, he finished up with a currycomb, merrily whistling
out his happiness as he worked to coax out the beauty he knew existed in his
two new horses. Sun was not the usual Rom piebald, but a gorgeous golden
palomino, with a lithe body and legs.sun dancing

 

Moon was a silver-colored horse,
stronger and stockier than Sun, but no less pretty. Together, they really had
become the sun and the moon, their coats not just reflecting light, but
seemingly radiating it.

white-horse-in-dust-forest

As a postscript, Father never did trade his two new horses at the annual
Rom horse fair, although he got many offers. Instead, he sold his two
others, so in love with Sun and Moon did he fall. He had had Sun and Moon
for six months, and his love for them had not diminished, but seemingly
increased, day by day.”
                                                      The Gypsy’s Song, Destiny’s Consent:Book I


25
Jan

Rom Tarot Fortunetelling

“As for our future, we left it to its rightful owners: the wind or to fate.
So unlike the frightened gadje who lined up for predictions from the
gypsy fortune-tellers to reassure them about their lives….

tarot-cards wheel of fortune

The Rom do not tell fortunes for one another
because we are not
obsessed with our
futures, and will allow neither the past
nor the future to
yoke itself to us. We
know how to live absolutely immersed
in the present,
remaining susceptible to
any gales the winds might usher
in, because we
know a gale will always
ultimately be embellished with rainbows.”
                          The Gypsy’s Song
Destiny’s Consent: Book I

tarotmaster

                  Tarot Cards

25
Jan

The Rom and History

Vardo and horses

“So it was, that at my birth in the early part of the 20th century, the Rom
had succeeded in neatly sidestepping history. As we traveled slowly from
village to village in our luminous wagons drawn by our splendid horses, it
worried none of us that we lingered yet in the human evolutionary phase of
‘hunter and gatherer’. It was obvious to us the gadje had moved on to
another way of life, the ‘Industrial Age’, they called it, but we coveted
nothing from that lifestyle. We Rom were an uncomplicated people and had
happily escaped many of the epidemics that plagued the gadje world,
including one of its most common – neurosis. Perhaps it was because we
believed instead to live in truthfulness to one’s nature, rather than live in
service to the gods of materialism. The Rom paid those gods no homage, at
least not with our hearts.

And we needed no history books to explain our past; our memories were
strong and sufficient to extend back four or five generations, long enough
for a full and proud ancestry. Since we had no libraries containing books of
mythical or legendary heroes from the past to compare ourselves to, we did
not belittle our accomplishments, nor goad ourselves on to inflated heights
of glory, which did not serve our life force. Each of our lives was to be
lived as best we could, extending few side glances over at our neighbor.”

                     Destiny’s Consent: Book I
                           The Gypsy’s Song

The Gypsys Song small